Regulation 2014/1143 - Prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species

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Current status

This regulation has been published on November  4, 2014 and entered into force on January  1, 2015.


Key information

official title

Regulation (EU) No 1143/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species
Legal instrument Regulation
Number legal act Regulation 2014/1143
Original proposal COM(2013)620 EN
CELEX number i 32014R1143


Key dates

Document 22-10-2014
Publication in Official Journal 04-11-2014; OJ L 317 p. 35-55
Effect 01-01-2015; Entry into force See Art 33
Deadline 01-06-2021; Review
End of validity 31-12-9999


Legislative text



Official Journal of the European Union

L 317/35



of 22 October 2014

on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species


Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 192(1) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,

After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee (1),

After consulting the Committee of the Regions,

Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure (2),




The appearance of alien species, whether of animals, plants, fungi or micro-organisms, in new locations is not always a cause for concern. However, a significant subset of alien species can become invasive and have serious adverse impact on biodiversity and related ecosystem services, as well as have other social and economic impact, which should be prevented. Some 12 000 species in the environment of the Union and in other European countries are alien, of which roughly 10 to 15 % are estimated to be invasive.



Invasive alien species represent one of the main threats to biodiversity and related ecosystem services, especially in geographically and evolutionarily isolated ecosystems, such as small islands. The risks such species pose may intensify due to increased global trade, transport, tourism and climate change.



The threat to biodiversity and related ecosystem services that invasive alien species pose takes different forms, including severe impacts on native species and the structure and functioning of ecosystems through the alteration of habitats, predation, competition, the transmission of diseases, the replacement of native species throughout a significant proportion of range and through genetic effects by hybridisation. Furthermore, invasive alien species can also have a significant adverse impact on human health and the economy. Only live specimens, and parts that can reproduce, represent a threat to biodiversity and related ecosystem services, human health or the economy, and therefore, only those should be subject to the restrictions under this Regulation.



The Union, as a party to the Convention on Biological Diversity, approved by Council Decision 93/626/EEC (3), is bound by Article 8(h) of that Convention, according to which the Parties shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, 'prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitats or species'.



The Union, as a Party to the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, approved by Council Decision 82/72/EEC (4), has undertaken to take all appropriate measures to ensure the conservation of the habitats of the wild flora and fauna species.



To support the achievement of the objectives of Directives 2000/60/EC (5), 2008/56/EC (6) and 2009/147/EC (7) of the European Parliament and of the Council and Council Directive 92/43/EEC (8), this Regulation should establish rules to prevent, minimise and mitigate the adverse effects of invasive alien species on biodiversity and related ecosystem services, and on human health and safety as well as to reduce their social and economic impact.



Some species migrate naturally in response to environmental changes. They should not be considered as alien species in their new environment and should be excluded from the scope of this Regulation. This Regulation should focus only on species introduced into the Union as a consequence of human intervention.





This text has been adopted from EUR-Lex.


Original proposal



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